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Today I want to talk about the most complex system in the entire known universe. It is something that is often times compared (and wrongfully so) to a computer. I am, of course, talking about the human brain.

Here are 5 of the coolest things about the brain that you should know:


Brains have an amazing ability to adapt to constantly changing internal and external conditions. This is called neuroplasticity. When your brain is exposed to a stimulus, consistently, over time it becomes more efficient at sending signals related to this stimulus. This is great if you are learning a new motor skill like playing piano or learning to golf. However, your brain also becomes more efficient to negative stimulus such as pain or addiction to substances. In this case, it is called maladaptive neuroplasticity.


Not only can brains change the "circuits" or "hard-wiring" at will, they also have the ability to fine tune the neurons by using a variety of neurohormones and neurotransmitters. This means that the brain is capable of making certain neurons more sensitive than others which results in easier and faster "firing".


The brain is capable of performing "association functions". These association patterns are fluid and are changing every day. An example of this is listening to a song and being reminded of a special time. At a later date, it may then be associated with a traumatic memory. When you listen to a song or smell a scent that triggers a memory, this is an association function. It gives us the ability to reach back into our memory and also recall associated information relating to that memory.


Few things compare to the vast network of connections that the brain possesses. The human brain contains about 10 billion neurons. This seems like a lot until you realize that there are over 100 billion neuroglia cells (cells that support and protect neurons). And that seems like a lot until you realize that there are TRILLIONS of neuron connections in the brain. In fact, one neuron can make over 10,000 connections!


In the developing baby's brain, the ends of neurons contain "growth cones". These growth cones guide the nerve to its final destination. How do they work? We don't know! But we do know that they are effected by nutrition (specifically food additives) both in-utero and after birth. This means that a pregnant mother's diet impacts the development of a baby's brain!

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By far the most interesting thing about the human brain is that our knowledge of it is only scratching the surface. Most of it's functions are still unknown. There are many unanswered questions and mysteries. As science expands, our knowledge of the human brain will grow. I am very excited about what discoveries will come next.


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As you all know my current passion project is antioxidants and free radicals. To catch you up, free radicals are compounds in the body that cause damage and inflammation. Antioxidants combat these free radicals and protect the body from damage. Some of these antioxidants are endogenous meaning they are created by the body. On the other hand, we have exogenous antioxidants that the body cannot create and must be obtained through the diet. One such exogenous antioxidant is ascorbate (vitamin C).


Vitamin C is a highly versatile antioxidant and antitoxin. It is most highly concentrated in the lungs and brain. Because it is not created by the body, it has a hard time getting inside the cells. Therefore, it does most of its scavenging extracellularly (outside of the cell). But this is not a bad thing. Most antioxidant enzymes are located inside of the cells and are not able to optimally protect the exterior surface of the cell (the cell membrane is actually known as the "brain" of the cell and is crucial to function and survival).


What is interesting about vitamin C is that its role in antioxidant defense is linked to other antioxidant factors. For example, in the case of vitamin E. Vitamin E is a major antioxidant obtained through our diet. When it comes in contact with a free radical, it neutralizes it by becoming oxidized (gaining an electron) and is transformed into its inactive form tocopheryl quinone radical. When vitamin E is oxidized, it is unable to perform its role of neutralizing free radicals. This is where vitamin C comes in. Vitamin C is able to reduce (take an electron) from tocopheryl quinone radical which reactivates it to the active form of vitamin E. In the process of this happening, vitamin C becomes the inactive form dehydroascorbate. Glutathione (another antioxidant) comes along and reactivates vitamin C to its active form (which is really freaking cool). So not only is vitamin C an antioxidant on its own, but it is able to aid other antioxidants (such as vitamin E) in neutralization of damaging free radicals.


Vitamin C is also found in the GI tract. Vitamin C binds to nitrite compounds to prevent the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. It also acts as a "dummy" target for carcinogens and reactive environmental pollutant compounds. This is crucial because we know these toxic, reactive compounds will attack something. Vitamin C serves as the sacrifice to protect the body's tissues from damage caused by these compounds.


The recommended daily amount of vitamin C is 65-90 milligrams. However, it is reported that for optimal antioxidant defense, higher levels of vitamin C are needed. How much vitamin C should we take? In short, we don't really know. High doses of vitamin C are very unlikely to cause damage and the worst case scenario for too much vitamin C is diarrhea and nausea.

At this time we should reflect and be grateful for all the amazing built in protective mechanisms our bodies have. Without these protective mechanisms, humans would not be here today. If these mechanisms are compromised, free radical damage will propagate and we will see systemic inflammation leading to chronic disease and dysfunction. If you want to be really healthy and proactive, you need to give your body the proper tools to aid antioxidant function.


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What if I were to tell you there was a vitamin that was critical for the function and health of your immune system, bones, muscles, lungs, kidneys, heart, and brain? Would you think this was important? Now what if I told you that 42% of Americans are deficient in this key vitamin?

Enter, cholecalciferol. You may know cholecalciferol by it's street name: vitamin D (more accurately vitamin D3). A study in 2011 showed that 41.6% of American adults are vitamin D deficient. But what is vitamin D and why should we care?

Vitamin D is one of the only vitamins that your body can produce (it can also produce B3 in small amounts). Vitamin D is created when your skin is exposed to sunlight. It is then sent to the liver and kidneys to be turned into it's active form: 1 alpha, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D. In it's active form, vitamin D is actually a hormone. It is necessary for a number of functions in the human body including immune system regulation, muscle function, cardiovascular function, respiratory function, brain development, and protection against some cancers (colorectal and breast).

Entire books could be written just on this one vitamin alone. However, I tend to focus on nervous system health and function and that is what I am going to do.

vitamin d and the nervous system

A healthy nervous system in reliant on healthy nervous cells. Vitamin D is a powerful antioxidant that protects the cell membranes from free radical attack. It is even more potent than the commonly known antioxidant vitamin E. In addition to directly being an antioxidant, it also boosts glutathione production in the liver. Glutathione is one of the most potent antioxidants that we know of. (side note: never give a child or take Tylenol in the immediate time frame of a vaccination. Tylenol will deplete the body of the glutathione and leave you exposed to potentially harmful compounds in the vaccine.) Long term health is all about protecting your cells from damage. Vitamin D supports these protective mechanisms.

feeling sad?

In his book, The Better Brain Book, Dr. David Perlmutter MD talks about the role vitamin D plays in mood regulation. Every year in the winter millions suffer from something called Seasonal Affective Disorder AKA SAD. This is because sunlight causes the production of vitamin D which causes the brain to release serotonin (the chemical that helps regulate mood). So if you are moody, don't bring everyone around you down! Pop a high quality vitamin D supplement and turn that frown upside-down.

I am going to talk about vitamin D a lot more in the future, but let's wrap in up for now. In short, vitamin D is crucial for overall health and well-being. It is a powerful antioxidant that protects your cells from free radical damage. Vitamin D can also help regulate mood and protect against certain types of cancer. Do yourself a favor, start taking a vitamin D supplement. One last thing to note: vitamin D can be toxic in high amounts. Depending on who you ask, they will recommend different amounts. Many studies conclude that 400-800 IU daily is both safe and effective.



I first started going to the chiropractor when I was 16 years old. There are two things I remember from my first few chiropractic adjustments.

  1. It was the first time I felt better leaving a doctor’s office.

When I was a freshmen in high school I injured my hip playing football. This started a downward spiral. It went from manageable hip pain to excruciating pain to bouts of my leg randomly giving out that would send me to the ground. I had been in physical therapy for many months prior to trying chiropractic, and it was not working for me. I would always leave feeling worse than before the appointment. I can still remember the way I felt leaving the chiropractor for the first time. The pain was still present, but I felt like I had strength in my leg again. Several visits later, the hip pain was gone 99% of the time.

2. it was the quickest doctor’s appointment i ever had

The second thing I remember thinking was, “that was quick!”

I was used to going to doctors appointments where you waited in line to check in, sat in the waiting room for 20 minutes, then got moved to a smaller room where you would wait for 20-30 more minutes. By they time the appointment was over, it was always more than an hour.

My first few chiropractic visits were very quick (with the exception of the initial exam which took about 30 minutes). The visits were 5-10 minutes. This was very confusing to me. I always compared chiropractic to massage, and some massage appointments are 120 minutes! How could chiropractor’s achieve their goal in just a few minutes? It wasn’t until deep into chiropractic school that I learned and understood the mechanism of this.



So, let's talk about golgi tendon organs better known as GTOs. To understand this, we will have to talk about physiology, but bear with me! I promise it wont be too bad.

These are specialized fibers located in your muscles. They are built in protection. When these fibers are stretched quickly, these specialized fibers inhibit (turn off) that particular muscle. This is hugely important to the understanding of chiropractic. In fact, this is one of the reasons that a chiropractic visit is so quick when compared to other therapies.

When a chiropractor performs an adjustment, this quickly stretches the local spinal muscles, stimulating the GTOs, and causing relaxation. This relaxation of muscles is instantaneous.

Keep in mind, we do not want complete relaxation of spinal muscles. A certain amount of "rigidity" is completely necessary for proper stability. The goal is perfect muscle symmetry. When the muscles of your spine have symmetry in muscle tone, proper bio mechanics are the result. We want you to be bio-mechanically perfect so you (and in turn your brain) can function well in a gravity environment.

So now we understand that chiropractic adjustments quickly stretch muscles stimulating the golgi tendon organs which results in muscle relaxation and re-calibration. Chiropractic is by far the most efficient way of accomplishing this goal.

If you have never experienced the life changing effects of chiropractic care, I strongly urge you to find a local chiropractor. Chiropractic is without a doubt the future of health care. Go out and experience it for yourself!


For those of you that know me, you know that I am a huge believer in taking high quality supplements. However, supplements are not for everyone. What I mean by that is supplements are not the place to start your health journey. Before we add anything to our routine or diet, we first need to look at what to take away. For example, if you are stopping by McDonald’s for lunch everyday, you shouldn’t be thinking about adding fish oil to your diet, you should first look at removing these unhealthy habits.

Before I recommend a supplement to someone, I make sure have consistently been meeting the following minimum criteria:


Drinking enough water is arguably the most beneficial things that most of us can do. Americans are severely and chronically dehydrated! 80% of american report that they do not drink enough water. In fact, the average american drinks only 1.5 cups of water per day. Did you know that one of the first signs of dehydration is joint pain? Water is super important to normal human function. This is why water represents 60% of our body’s makeup.


Diet and eating habits are crucial to baseline health. Before we look at adding any kind of supplements we should look at how we can modify our diets to best serve us. Bottom line, most of us consume to many processed foods and way to many carbohydrates and sugar. The problem is that most of us are unaware of what our diets actually look like. I always recommend tracking your food intake over a two-week span. Only then can we honestly evaluate our current diet and execute proper strategies to make changes. There are so many amazing food tracking apps available to make this easier than ever.

Don’t over think this. If you google “best diet” you will find thousands of diets all claiming to be the one for you. And all of this information will contradict other information you read. Keep it simple. Avoid processed foods and sugars and eat high quality meats and vegetables.


The last, and probably most obvious thing that we need to talk about is exercise. Exercise is a crucial part of our overall health. I have not found a single person that will debate this with me. However, a CDC study released last year found that only 22.9% of american adults are getting enough exercise. The standards for enough exercise in this study was “150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic exercise per week”. Maybe 150 minutes seems like a lot to you, but that comes out to 30 minutes 5 days per week. What that could look like for you is coming downtown and walking your dog along the water for 30 minutes. It doesn’t have to be SoulCycle and CrossFit (although I do think those programs are awesome). In order to be consistent with exercise you need to find something that you enjoy doing. Experiment and try new things until you find something that fits.


Why do I recommend this? Let’s look at each of the things on that list. All of the things I listed above are essentially free and easy. I am a firm believer that if you are not willing to consistently do things that are free and easy, you will not do things that are costly and require effort. Until you are able to do these things consistently do not waste your time and money on purchasing supplements. Maybe this is the realist in me coming out, but it’s just human nature.

But, if you have taken a look at your life and removed obviously unhealthy habits, and consistently done the things I mentioned above, adding the right, high-quality supplements to your diet could be hugely beneficial.

Arizona's Current Bill to Help Fight Opioid Addicition - SB 1097


Drug abuse and addiction is a major issue in our country today. From 1999-2017, 700,000 Americans died from drug overdose. One area that is particularly alarming is the current abuse and addiction of opioid pain medication. In 2017 alone, over 47,000 Americans died from opioid drug overdose. Currently, it is estimated that 130 Americans die every day from opioid drug overdose. Needless to say, opioid overdose and addiction is a major issue that needs to be addressed. The state of Arizona is currently trying to combat this issue by adding chiropractic benefits to medicaid insurance.

WHAT IS SB 1097?

SB 1097 is a senate bill that would allow patients covered under Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCS) to get a prescription from a primary care physician for 20 visits per year. This benefit would be for those suffering from acute or chronic pain and would serve as an alternative to opioid pain medication. 20 visits per year is a great start and may serve a majority of acute cases, but some patients suffering from chronic pain may require additional visits. Arizona is thinking ahead and has added the caveat of providing additional visits at the patients discretion.


The idea of adding chiropractic care to decrease opioid pain prescriptions, and ultimately opioid pain abuse and overdose, is not a new concept. In fact, over 27 states offer chiropractic coverage under their version of medicaid. One of the best examples is Rhode Island. A study was done after Rhode Island implemented chiropractic coverage in their state’s version of medicaid. The results were absolutely mind blowing. First, they saw a 36% decrease in per-patient costs. This shows that while chiropractic care my involve more frequent visits, the total cost on the healthcare system is dramatically lower. Even more astonishing was that opioid pain use decreased by 87%! This is one of the clearest cases that proves how effective chiropractic care is at decreasing and eliminating pain. Lastly, they saw that opioid pain prescriptions decreased by 72%. All of these results compare those that utilized chiropractic care to those that did not (control group). Imagine the amazing results we would see with higher participation levels.


It is estimated that adding these benefits would cost the state $4.9 million. But overall, this avenue is expected to decrease overall spending of Arizona’s version of medicaid. If we look to the Rhode Island case study, we can expect to see up to a 36% decrease in overall costs. However, this relies on program participation.


This is an amazingly creative way for Arizona to fight two issues at once: healthcare costs and opioid pain medication abuse. It is amazing to think that expanding coverage and adding benefits could, not only give patients more options when facing chronic or acute pain, but could also fight two of the biggest problems facing our healthcare system today.


In my personal practice, I have witnessed first-hand the affects that just 20 principle chiropractic visits can have on a persons life. From my experience, patients that come in with a long time opioid prescription do not want to be on these medications. They are simply on these medications because they have not been offered an alternative method for controlling their pain. When I say chiropractic care saves lives, this is what I am talking about. Every single day, chiropractors all over the world help patients control and eliminate pain where the only alternative given was opioid pain medication.

The Movement is here. People are beginning to catch wind of the amazing benefits that chiropractic care can have on our communities. If you have chronic or acute pain and feel as though there are no alternatives to pain medication, or if you have accepted that nothing can help your pain, call a local chiropractor today.



Let's start with the stats:

45 people die every day from opioid overdose. That's 16,425 people per year! And for every death, 30 people are admitted to the emergency room due to these drugs. That's nearly 500,000 people per year!

You would think these stats would cause health care providers to look elsewhere to help their patients. This could not be further from the truth! In the past decade, opioid prescriptions have climbed 300% and continue to rise. 

A scary fact? 1 in 10 teens admit to abusing prescription drugs. Most teens report that they believe taking prescription pain killers is safer than illegal street drugs. This also could not be further from the truth. A drug called Fentanyl is 50 times more powerful than heroin. In 2007, this drug alone was responsible for over 1,000 deaths. 

Have you heard the term gateway drug? The drug that most fits the bill is opioid prescription drugs. 86% of heroin users report using opioid prescription drugs prior to trying heroin. This is becoming far too common. The typical story goes: a doctor prescribes these drugs, the drugs run out, and then the newly dependent user looks for other ways to achieve the high. To be blunt, doctors that are liberal with prescribing opioid pain medication create heroin users. 

Let's talk about pain. Pain is often looked at as the "bad guy", but it should be celebrated as the true hero. You can think of pain as your body's alarm system. Pain is your body's way of saying, "something is wrong! We need to pay attention!" 

Imagine you are asleep in your bed at night. All of the sudden your smoke detector goes off. You would never walk through your smoke filled house to the smoke detector, take the battery out, and go back to sleep. This sounds obvious to us, but in reality, this is what we are doing every time we take pain medication. In this analogy, our bodies are the smoke filled house and the smoke detector is pain. 

Of course there is a time and place for these medications. I am not saying that we should live in pain, but (in most cases) there are better ways to handle it. Numerous studies have shown chiropractic to be very effective at managing chronic pain. In addition, chiropractic lacks all the negative side effective associated with prescription pain medication. 

If you or someone you know is suffering from chronic pain, share this information with them!


Joints are one of the most neurologically dense structures in the human body. They are littered with nerve endings with the sole purpose of detecting motion and sending this information to the brain. These specific types of nerves are called mechanoreceptors and are vital to our everyday function. 

Can you walk without looking at your feet? Can you type without watching your fingers strike the keyboard? Can you operate the gas and brake pedal without having to look down to coordinate the movement? The answer to all of these questions is yes. This is due to the stimulation of mechanoreceptors in the joint. These mechanoreceptors are stimulated by motion and send this information to the brain to be interpreted. This is a special function in the body and is called PROPRIOCEPTION. PROPRIOCEPTION is a special sense that most people are unaware of. This sense (through the proper function of mechanoreceptors) allows us to know where our body parts are at any given time. 

What if you were to lose the sense of PROPRIOCEPTION? Imagine not being able to know where your feet were without looking at them. The only way you would be able to walk is by constantly looking down at your feet. The second you look up, the ability to coordinate this movement would be lost and would result in a fall or trip.

Is it possible to lose the sense of PROPRIOCEPTION? A global loss of PROPRIOCEPTION is very unlikely. However, diminished PROPRIOCEPTION localized to specific joints is very common. These mechanoreceptors that signal the brain that motion is occurring are dependent on joint motion. In other word, a joint must be able to move to signal the brain that motion is occurring. If a joint is fixated or "stuck" you are unable to coordinate movement effectively. The solution to this problem is very simple, get that joint moving again! 

It is for this very reason that all elite athletes utilize chiropractic care. Chiropractors focus on proper motion of the joints which in turn results in better coordination of movement. If you are Tom Brady, Michael Phelps, or Steph Curry, it is very important that you get the best quality of motion not only for peak performance, but for injury prevention as well. 

"That sounds great, but I'm not an elite athlete. I have a desk job."

Chiropractic care is not just for athletes. Imagine this sense of PROPRIOCEPTION in the elderly population. Coordination of movement in the elderly is arguably more vital than it is in elite athletes (At least the stakes are higher). Falls are the leading cause of death in people age 65 and older. In 2014, injuries resulting from a fall cost the health care system $31 billion. And as this population increases, this number is expected to double to over $60 billion by the year 2020. 

Chiropractors aim to keep joints mobile which significantly reduces the risk of a fall. When a joint is free to move, information floods the brain and increases the ability to coordinate movement.

In addition to this benefit, new research is emerging from a researcher named Norman Doidge. Norman Doide is the world's leading expert on neuroplasticity. His research found that when proprioceptive information floods the brain, it also stimulates the association pathways which leads to an increase in all senses. This means that a chiropractic adjustment causes better vision, hearing, and increased sensation of touch, taste, and smell. In other words, chiropractic allows you to perceive the world around you at a higher level.

And you thought chiropractors were for back pain...